Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. The système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being those of the old system. de L’Isle () and the anonymous “Métrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’. Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. 10d. the answer. he système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being de L’Isle () and the anonymous “Métrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’ (). Even this was very far from entirely driving out the old system. The système usuel, now abolished, was as follows, the divisions being those of the old system. ‘Asétrologies Constitutionelles et Primitives’ (), it may be observed that they.
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Since about the nature of temporary acute intoxication caused by cannabis has been examined in many publications. Unfortunately many of these publications merely reproduce earlier studies. Though these studies are conscientious and fairly comprehensive, they are open to criticism in various respects:. First, the experiments deal only with a few subjects of a high intellectual level who are members of advanced civilizations this also applies to the brilliant but over-literary account of hashish intoxication given by eminent authors such as Baudelaire [ 42 ] and Theophile Gautier.
Most of the investigators analyse hashish intoxication caused by the absorption of products with a cannabis base through the mouth. They hardly deal at all with hemp smokers. It would appear, however, that the symptoms caused by smoking and swallowing hemp are not quite the same. Experiments have nearly always been performed with pharmaceutical products cannabins, fat or soft extracts of Indian hempor with complex preparations of the illicit trade such as dawamesk.
In these cases it is difficult to ascertain that they do not contain other active substances besides hemp. The natural drugs, such as tops, charas, hashish, etc.
Superior figures in the text indicate reference to the “Bibliographic Notes” on pages 44 and We live in the present through the action of out will, which draws our attention to objects of immediate interest. Through memory we live in the past. A perfect memory would enable us to live our whole life over again, starting from the moment when we became aware of ourselves. Imagination enables us to live in the future.
With this faculty we are easily able to create an entirely new world, patterned upon our own desires. The effect of absorbing the substances which Charles Richet [ 44 ] has so appropriately called the “poisons of the intellect” is to weaken the individual’s will, the faculty which controls, sorts out, groups and correlates ideas according to logical laws.
Thus in the case of the intoxicated subject, memory and imagination predominate, he becomes entirely absorbed in the past and the future, and loses sight of the realities of the moment. Cannabis is a drug which affects the mind most powerfully. Besides producing a delirious excitement of the imagination and stimulating the memory to an extraordinary degree, it engenders a state of exhilaration, well-being and bliss which forms one of the greatest attractions to addicts. The first effects of an adequate dose of a drug with a cannabis base are felt not more than two hours after ingestion.
You cannot understand or analyse or explain these indefinable sensations. You feel happy, you say so, you proclaim it with exaltation, you endeavour to give vent to your joy by every means in your power, you repeat over and over again that you are happy, but you cannot find words to explain to yourself how or why you are so happy.
The subject feels himself to be strong, agile, elegant, and capable of extraordinary feats of prowess. He experiences an intense desire to move about. Walking, jumping, dancing seem desirable things, and yet the sensation of ineffable tranquillity and perfect happiness which dominate are so strong that he usually abstains lest it should leave him.
Weakening of the power of control. During this period, his intellect is calm, and he retains the full strength of his will. Gradually, however, his mind becomes filled with ideas foreign to the subject on which he is endeavouring to fix his attention.
All of a sudden he is overcome by absurd but irresistible laughter, caused by any trifling incident, which very often is not in the least funny. A commonplace sentence, a very ordinary act, the sight of some person, may be sufficient to provoke the subject to mirth. At this stage the most usual objects appear strange, new, and extremely amusing. The phase at which ideas become dissociated coincides with a need for conversation and effusiveness. Extraordinary conversations take place, giving rise to the most extravagant misunderstandings, which are greeted with new bursts of wild laughter.
The subject talks excitedly, argues heatedly about trifles, and is astonished to see that persons around him do not appear to share the excitement he feels. The conversation becomes more and more fantastic and incoherent as the will, yielding to the action of the drug, loses its power to direct thought where and how it wants.
An increasingly rapid train of ideas surges through the mind; they follow one another with bewildering speed and are immediately expressed, regardless of their nature, “so that the rush of words and nonsense is due not only to the exaggeration of ideas, but also and chiefly to the fact that every idea is expressed” R.
The symptoms at this stage of intoxication sufficiently explain why hashish addicts like to consort together when consuming the drug. The opium addict, on the contrary, prefers to indulge alone, as he does not pass through this stage of voluble excitement and effusiveness.
During this phase of cannabis intoxication the subject tries to express a multitude of thoughts simultaneously and feels that this is impossible because speech is too gross to express such beautiful thoughts and not fast enough to reproduce the swiftness of his thoughts.
Ideas well up incessantly this, however, only applies to addicts who are to some extent educated ; they whirl through his brain, becoming ever more lively and striking and are associated together in the most unexpected ways. Hypertrophy of the ego. He considers himself superior to all other human beings. The hashish addict looks on his fellows with very great, but friendly, contempt. He considers them as much inferior to himself in every way but feels a deep affection for them, and is grateful to them for existing as by their own unworthiness they enhance his sense of his own importance.
Recent American documents have primitivrs to the case of a young student who, while under the action of marihuana, was convinced she had found the solution to a certain problem connected with her work, and jumped out of the window of her room in order to reach more rapidly the place where she worked. This stage in cannabis intoxication is marked by an extraordinary intensification of the feelings as well as by a hypertrophy of ideas, to use Charles Richet’s [ 44 ] expression.
The simplest acts become theatrical, and the person announces in a tragic voice or with peals of laughter that it is raining or hsuelles midnight has just struck” Moreau de Tours. The exact notion of persons and neighbouring objects is also lost. This mental confusion gradually increases. The moments of lucidity become shorter and shorter and the addict gradually surrenders entirely to his subjective impressions.
The loud and boisterous gaiety marking the pri,itives stages is succeeded by a pleasant sensation of moral and physical lassitude. He no longer wishes to speak or hear others speak, but wants complete silence.
Tunisian hashish addicts have told Dr. Bouquet that at this stage of intoxication they were painfully affected by the ticking of a watch and even by the slight buzzing sound made by mosquitoes.
The least effort becomes an almost impossible exertion and the mind allows itself to be deliciously lulled into a state of apathy, indifference and complete calm. Life seems easy, pleasant and devoid of material cares. This stage is also marked by a complete change in the notion of time.
The progress of time appears infinitely slow, because between two clearly received impressions a multitude of others well up which are hazy and often incomplete, but prlmitives delight the subject by their number and variety and by the interest he attaches to them, as the critical sense no longer functions.
These ysuelles, particularly those only half-formed, seem innumerable, and as time is only measured by the memory of them, it appears infinitely long.
The notion of space is also wholly impaired. It is difficult, however, to drlves an exact conception of this phenomenon without having personally experienced it. The distance between the subject and a person standing primtives near him appears enormous. The hand seems to be separated by an enormous space from the glass it attempts to seize. If stairs have to be mounted, the steps appear to extend to the sky.
Bouquet explains pfimitives phenomenon by the fact that in hashish intoxication all objects are seen by the addict through a mist this may simply be the result of the dilation of the pupil caused by the drug. A thick and sometimes multicoloured mist seems to envelop everything, making the horizons recede, rendering out-lines indistinct and blurring and idealizing shapes. This is so marked that such faulty perception sometimes interests the intoxicated person himself.
At usueples stage of intoxication, therefore, the senses, particularly sight and hearing, are extremely acute; but the perceptions are all distorted, and the distortions are constantly varying and altering. The shape and colour of objects are often changed. A picture, flowers or an ordinary tapestry becomes a wonderful landscape, a place of enchantment. A bare wall becomes covered with brilliant and fantastic foliage of extraordinary plants and with strange animals and gorgeous patterns.
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Everything becomes animated and swarms, dazzles and changes, obeying the whims of the excited imagination; then pales, blurs and dies away, to be replaced by new and equally seductive visions. A peculiar sensation of dual personality is sometimes observed. The addict is conscious of his real ego, which functions normally, while another fantastic and capricious personality exists side by side with it and gives rise to innumerable phantasies. A Tunisian hashish addict told Dr. Bouquet that his other personality, which he contrasted by calling “his friend Hachoum”, appeared to him every time he took hashish, in the form of an old, ironical and ill-tempered dwarf, who mercilessly criticized all his thoughts and deeds and never wearied of gibing at the plans and resolutions which the drug suggested to his real personality.
This is the stage of great suggestibility. A bystander need only tell the intoxicated person that a thing exists for it immediately to appear before his eyes. Any impressions made on the senses immediately give rise to imaginary perceptions, that is, illusions and hallucinations. Meunier [ 11 ] was able, with the aid of hemp, to influence subjects who were completely unamenable to hypnotism or to suggestion in the waking state. Any orders given during delirium are carried out even if their execution is fixed for the following day.
It is easy to realize the dangerous consequences of such acute suggestibility from a social point of view, and that hashish addicts have been made to commit crimes under the influence of the drug e.
The visual hallucinations caused by hashish intoxication among North Africans frequently consist of gay, lively and vividly coloured Lilliputian elves Dr. Perrussel [ 22 ]. This is very rarely mentioned in records of hashish intoxication among Europeans.
UNODC – Bulletin on Narcotics – Issue 1 –
Bouquet considers that this is merely due to the fact that one of usuelless popular traditions of the natives of North Africa is a firm belief in the existence of people known as “Hijouj and Majouj”, tiny beings living far away driives the end of the world, behind a large wall built to keep them out, as the world would come to an end if they succeeded in knocking it down.
Pascal [ 39 ] attributes this acute suggestibility of the hashish addict to the persistence of relationship with the outside world. Whereas in certain forms of intoxication e. The extreme suggestibility of the hashish addict is useful, however, in certain cases such as those of experimental intoxication. It sometimes happens that certain subjects are the victims of painful hallucinations.
They believe they are being pursued by wild beasts or threatened by assassins. As they are extremely emotional, this causes them acute suffering, and it is important that some agreeable idea should be suggested to them so that their minds are diverted to pleasant thoughts, as they would not hesitate to jump out of a window to escape the imaginary dangers which terrify them.
The number of reported attempts at suicide is remarkable. Fortunately their motor incapacity is usually such that they are quite unable to move.
Meunier mentions the case of a woman who, when intoxicated by hashish, found life so futile that she wished to kill herself, but had not the strength to seize a revolver placed within her reach. Drivs sensitiveness to sound. It is at this stage, too, that auditory sensations become extraordinarily keen.
The slightest musical sound, the peal of a bell, the vibration of a string, a gramophone record, produce the effect of inexpressibly beautiful harmony.